Astrophysik

©2010 Author: Michael Köchling
 



Our star the sun.

Although we have already very good knowledge over our star, we cannot describe nevertheless many its qualities and inner processes. Particularly the formations of its stain-activities, which appear intermittently, is one of its big puzzles. Or the nature of its core-area and the local conditions. Exactly this area remains locked us largely. But exactly from the conditions in the core-area is the entire appearance, just as the energy-production of our star dependent. My investigations yielded that one over the composition and the qualities of the core-area only insufficient information has. Therefore, I have tried to learn something about it more.
We know that our sun corresponds to a star of later star-generations, because she contains 1% severe elements, which come from other stars, approximately that in the end of their existence their matter through super - novas in the cosmos had scattered. Together with the primeval-matter from hydrogenium, helium and lithium, our star has originated from it. This one% heavy elements listens to itself quite little, however it is with a total-mass of 2 xes 1030 kg after all stil 2 xes 1028 kg.
If you now determine the density in the core-area, so one gets the value of 160 kg / dm3 in the sunbathe-middle on the basis of the pressure ruling there. This high density decreases with ever bigger nascent radius outside, therefore we this value not completely on the core-mass can apply. It submits to approximately one middle good of the density of 140 kg / dm3. With this value as basis, a radius of approximately 35.000 km emerges for the core-area.
Here, the heavy elements would therefore be gathered, because these concentrate invariably in the center an each of star. However with it sufficiently not! Another area arrives in that the gases possess metallic character, because of the high pressure ruling there. This means that they itself over an area from further 35.000 km radius, holds back as tenaciously as metals. However one doesn't say with it whether the gases behave with it like liquid or even solid metals. If one takes the middle density into account however, then it is 7,25 times denser than gold. It can become presuming that the consistency is essentially tougher than with liquid metal. We must therefore assume a very tough mash, which can hardly move under the everywhere ruling pressure.
We have a central-area with it with 140.000 km diameters, which earn 10% of the sunbathe-diameter and allow as good as no movement. We can therefore assume a largely stiff center-body. The convection-zone begins only over it with increasing distance. There, warm matter rises and chills matter sinks. For this reason, we can assume that the fusions-processes can only begin from this border to the energy-production, because movements are hardly possible in the core-area because of the densely packed matter and the hydrogen doesn't can rich there. In this area, the helium, which puts 25% of the total-mass, has namely mainly already collected itself. The beginning of the low convection-zone even only becomes with circa 500.000 km radius assumed. One is itself with it over the true value very discordantly and we are depended on estimations.
However, is there existing enough temperature and pressure for fusions? In the sunbathe-middle, 15,5 million Kelvins should prevail, with a pressure of 2,5 xes 1016 Pascal, corresponds to 247 billions devoid of, statements in ABC lexicon astronomy.



Picture-proof: with friendly permission ©ESA / NASA, made by SOHO


Quantenmechanical are fusions no possible with these conditions, because the electrostatic mutual repulsion of the protons cannot be overcome with it. Especially since above the radius of 70.000 km only a temperature of circa 13 million Kelvins existing is and the pressure also already inferior became. Thereupon, the environment-temperature becomes ever lower with increasing radius. It amounts with a radius of 500.000 km only barely 6 millions Kelvins. This is adjudicated too little for fusions.
But because of that many too mean temperature cannot come it to spontaneous fusions. Therefore, an explosion-like development, which would explode the sun like with a hydrogen-bomb, doesn't occur. To it, another chilling effect comes through the again emerging helium-kernels namely. These interrupt the fusions like moderators. We know this effect from our fusions-reactors. In the reactors, the emerging helium-kernels chill that plasma, also as helium-ash marks, and if it becomes too many, they can suppress further fusions.
However there should be a back door and this is the tunnel-effect. He should cause that the barrier of the repulsion can now and then be overcome and comes it to single fusions consequently. Now, one must introduce itself the immense quantity of existing protons, that are there together, however. On the basis of this quantity, a magnificent number comes about fusions. But it should be far fewer, as was assumed until now.
Also without this description, a so named energy-deficit is known with our sun. Much takes place too few fusions after it in order to be able to explain the handed over energy-quantity. It must therefore exist another push forming process, which can explain the handed over energy-quantity.
But another puzzle still exists! During their normal activity, the sun emits the sunbathe-wind. This consists of electromagnetic waves, just as electrons and ions. With it is changed per second of approximately 5 millions tons in waves and 2 million tons as ions were handed over additionally. And despite this continuous mass-loss, the sun should increase in mass. From outside, matter doesn't come however sufficiently in form of dust, meteorites and comets. Especially since the dust cannot at all reach the sun. As we could experience at comets, the dust partly becomes cracked through the sunbathe-wind. Radicals (fragments of molecules), or even new kernels through division, originate with it and simultaneously the dust is loaded electrically because electrons are snatched him. If the dust however first has the same electric charge like the sunbathe-wind, so he is driven into the cosmos out. We could experience all this example at the comets, whose plasma-tail, and the dust-tail always from the sun away directional is. And this completely independently from it, whether a comet of the sun approaches, or itself of her removes.



Picture-proof: Stefan Dylus / Comet Hale Bopp




Picture-proof: Stefan Dylus / Comet 17P Holmes


So it is seen therefore badly comprehensible why the sun becomes heavier in the course of the time. But there is a strength, which effects permanently on all masses in the universe and is this, the gravity. This force is not influenced by the sunbathe-wind and streams into the sun in permanently. Since it possesses this quality alone, only it can be responsible for the mass-increase. The proof would be simultaneously produced with it that the gravity possesses neutral mass, and that it is about a particle-form. Consequently the gravity represents a strength mechanical purely which stands with the normal matter in interaction. This testifies to the gravitational-strength, which increases in dependence of the respective mass.
However, I would like to present you another special effect of our sun, that already I in the previous cosmos-tidings in the article „Immense brigthness-outbreaks on red - and brown dwarf-stars“ had spoken to. I had pointed out in it that our sun a long-in the time of-variable star is. And as is certainly known to you, the activity of the sun was stronger than in the last 8000 years in the last years. Now scientists have tested again which difference results from it more measurably. Until now one assumed namely that this has an effect too at most 0,5%. Is to me not known with it which was taken in the individual into account there. The new researcher-group anyway could see the activities of the last 20 years in relation with the present situation directly, because we have a stain-minimum since 2007. The effect of it is that a cooling of the middle temperature occurs since then.
And see there! It turned out a completely other value, because now one not only the visible light + UV considered but all spectra, to which also x-raying -, gamma - and especially the particle-radiation belongs. Therefore everything, which the sunbathe-wind included. Who would have it thought?

Now emerged 5% variances of the radiation-quantity approximately!


We have one 10 with it - fold higher value as until now was assumed. A so high value of 5% variances has quite considerable effects on the climate of our earth. We see this influencing at the present temperatures and the gigantic snow-quantities that the northern hemisphere at present. I only hope that some weather forecasters won't now predict a new ice age, once again more what, completely inappropriate would be.



Picture-proof: with friendly permission ©ESA / NASA, made by SOHO


If there should have been ice ages therefore really, so this was with big likelihood because of postponements the rotation-Saxon of our earth, through which the poles were transferred. Moreover I had shown that the climate changes on the basis of the platonic year, independence of the way-eccentricity of the earth, in the rhythm of 12.500 years. Emerges locally seen big differences and the climate with it changes through it slowly however constantly. I would not like to claim with it, that we take no influence, but against the nature-forces, we are very small lights however!

In this context, I would like to recommend you following Internetpages:
http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/
http://www.eike-klima-energie.eu/


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