Astrophysik

©2007 author: Michael Köchling
 



The red-postponement of the light.

The big discoverer of the Galaxien and the different red-postponements of there light was Sir Edwin Hubble. Quite broadly he determined, that a Galaxy is ever distant further, it more big red-postponement has. To this, prominent lines were compared in the spectra. From these results, he inferred so that to have found a reliably good standard to distance-calculations for Galaxies. Hereupon, he justified the Hubble - constant, which he with formerly 500 km / S per Megaparsec fixed, 1 Mpc = 3,2617 million Ljs. This constant it meant however simultaneously, that the cosmos extended, what corresponded to the calculations of Albert Einstein completely, because he had determined on the basis of the mass-distributions in the cosmos that too little mass had much in order to be able to hold together gravitational. However „knew“ he at that time still nothing of the dark matter or the dark energy. At least, he had always assumed one executing medium in the universe, later on the basis of the Michelson - Morley - attempts was that discarded.
All were content of these result. We therefore live in an expanding universe. Of course, nobody can say in what is stretch itself and where it expands. Now, later the value of that had to strongly reduced on the basis of new facts. On this occasion, different methods of measurement came to the application. There, the trigonometry was once, then the super-novas of the class 1A, Cepheiden, the mass - brightness - relationships and ultimately the quasars. They all contributed to it that today the current value with 72 - 75 km / S per Megaparsec is assumed. And although this value is now much more inferior, the universe seemingly still expands and this accelerates as well. Meanwhile, red-postponements became up to Z namely = 10 determines. This corresponds to an apparent expansion-installment with tenfold speed of light in a distance of approximately 13 billions light-years. However this doesn't mean that these Galaxies really move so quickly in their area but this is an effect of the spatial expansion. They move locally therefore seen not us quite near Galaxies faster than that. Whether it is however realistic, that the expansion-installment of the universe is so high, I would like to question at this position. Own calculations have yielded something completely different there. However from it later.
Always it became assumed from some scientists that the red-postponement-value of the distant Galaxies cannot be dependent on their radial-speeds alone. They pled for it that a part of the red-postponements is on the distribution of gas and dust in the cosmos at least therefore to attribute to the interstellar matter. That this an entitlement has, is already to be recognized by it, that the spectra of stars need in dependence of the different azimuth-heights of a correction. Main cause is the refraction-strength of our earth's atmosphere in ball-peel-form for this. But our atmosphere comprises not only gas but also dust, which causes a postponement of the light to the red area additionally.
The light must the 5 to 6 approximately - fold material-quantity in horizon-proximity goes through opposite the perpendiculars. We recognize this by different sunbathe-stands easily. If almost stand the sun in the zenith, so it beams white/yellow. Decide the sun against it on the horizon densely, it can shine yellow until orange. Break - as well as scatter-effects of the light take place through the atmosphere on this occasion. If especially much dust is after volcano-outbreaks in the air, we see the sun shining densely over the horizon even dark-orange. One can already recognize by it how much influence also the interstellar matter must have. Arrives however aggravating on this occasion that not the distribution of the interstellar matter isotropic, not therefore uniformly distributes, is. And there are still two facts unknown in this context. This is the dark matter and the dark energy in the universe. These three named factors became to my knowledge until now after not either sufficiently or not at all considers.
Meanwhile, we know however that itself in and about Galaxies around much more gas and dust it decides as we could investigate the visible area earlier. One can assume the two with it until triple quantity of the formerly visible share from stars and planets what refers to the total-mass one each Galaxy. This was discovered by the Radiotelescopy and the Infraredtelescopy. But also in the cosmos outside the Galaxies could be discovered many gigantic clouds from gas and dust. This matter takes care with its break - and scatter-qualities of it that the light reaches not quite straight tracks to us and it postpones the spectra of that in it simultaneously or behind it situated objects to the red area. The shares of the breake- and scatter-qualities are quite differently and depend on the distribution of gas and dust in the cosmos. Right seen comes the light through these effects on curved ways to us. Here the gravity also has a share, because also it steers the light on long distances back and forth, albeit I confessed another representation-manner as the official in this sense prefer.

Let's hold on first. There are four causes of the red-postponements at least:

1. the red-postponements through radial-speeds
2. the red-postponement through spaceexpansiation
3."the red-postponements through scatter-effects"
4."the red-postponements through refraction-effec"



Until today, practically only point 1 and 2 was taken into account and the cosmos had to consequently expand. This was an unavoidable conclusion.

However just: We must make a difference in principle! Namely between a red-postponement and a red-appearance! Remove itself an object of us with high speed namely, the waves of the light outgoing from it become stretched the reproducer-effect accordingly. On this occasion, it is about a real red-postponement. Quite differently it looks however if the objects appear through break - and scatter-effects redder. In such cases, the short-wave-R light from ultraviolet until yellow is distracted more strongly than the more long-wave red light. For this reason, the red light reaches us from far distant objects predominantly, quite so, as it causes also our atmosphere. If must therefore take a correction because of different azimuth-heights, when we observing the stars from the earth, so we have to do with a red-appearance here. Practically seen, the other light is filtered simply away, distracted respectively. Ultimately, mainly redder light comes in all cases to us however.
Now remains to clarify, on which manner the interstellar medium, just as can work matter and the dark-energy. If it should occur, that the light is a certain fatigue away, to in its long ways over many light-years, so this can also lead to a red-postponement. It would be a specific quality of the interstellar media, that had necessarily to would be taken into account, then. That this even likely is, you can pick out described effects from that from me further below. Namely only two causes were possible after it for a right red-postponement. Once the own-speeds of the Galaxies and on the other hand the spatial expansion of the cosmos. Or arrives another quality of the interstellar media approximately? What is truly applicable?
An especially important quality an each of medium it is it, that indicates itself in it extending waves, same to influence that they stretch and differ itself on the basis of the natural resistance of such a medium. More final is a red-postponement, which does itself on long distances noticeable. It remains now to clarify which leads to the differ and the stretching of the waves. Is it the resistance alone an each of medium? Don't secure! To it influences are caused by different currents in each medium, because no one is static. In the cosmos, it is the gravity acting everywhere with different strengths with biggest likelihood, because it is dependent on the many different masses and therefore it streams with most different speeds. Let's take the differ now. It originates with directional waves at their lateral foothills and is dependent on the qualities of the transfer-medium. Even an only 2mm competing laser beams it has if it reaches the moon-surface, already a diameter of approximately 2m.


The Differgenz becomes generated through whirls at the lateral foothills of the waves.

Consequently its intensity distributes itself on a gigantic surface and therefore only has a weak effect.
Thereupon, the media named above work like dark energy, dark matter, just as gas and dust as interstellar matter. They all contributes to the result and causes the red-postponements to a high share at least.
If we take the influence of the dark matter and the dark energy into account therefore once, so completely varied securities of the red-postponements emerge and the speeds interconnected with it. Yes more still! Even the distances change through it. One has determined this at spectras of super-novas lately. Quite different securities were found in contrast to the brightness-courses, which could not agree with the known distances. Obviously, the interstellar matter, that is distributed irregular in the universe, had done itself with the measurements noticeable. The red-postponements were simply too high in many cases.
One of these cases, we have with the Doublegalaxy M51 in the hunting dogs. First they had assumed that both Galaxies gravitativ stand in interaction. The significantly different red-postponements showed however that it is about a visual Doublegalaxy and the smaller Galaxy must stand far in the background. One introduces itself: the distance would correspond to the distance between our Milkyway and the Andromeda - Galaxy approximately and we can hardly perceive more final with our eyes!


Picture-proof: M51 of Wulf-Dietger Brown with C8, FS = 2m, 9 x 10-min and 3 x 10-min darkness-picture,
EOS 350D modifies plus IDAS - filters.
Reception-place: In Unterbach at Düsseldorf

It is on this occasion relative far, because one can assume approximately 0,5 to one millions light-years which agrees in no relationship with the found red-postponement-value, which means, however that this Dwarfgalaxy 2,3 million Ljs. stands further in the background. This can be agreed with the brightness and size of this Dwarfgalaxy in no way. The not directly visible matter of the big in the foreground standing Galaxy, causes the too high red-postponement-value quite obviously. Of this result the scientists concern with it, were very astonishment and wanted search for the cause. A result is not known to me however at present.
Now let's come to that, which I could determine, this doesn't admittedly cover scientifically, but nevertheless very interesting is:
One of my considerations was it: How do emitted waves behave in principle if the Emitter stands once and what happens if it removes itself? Something quite crucial had to happen on this occasion!
The laws of Ernst Mach formed the basis to this. I determined with my investigations then that the waves behaved quite peculiarly. Quite clear, from a standing Emitter, waves always stretch with their specific speed c into all directions evenly.


If I now moved the Emitter however, so a completely unbelievable picture emerged. The emitted waves still stretched from the place of their respective grows with c, with which they left on the basis of the own-speed of the Emitters somewhat stretched to the back, which corresponds to the Doppler-effect completely. Simultaneously, they met the conditions of the Particular Relativity however after this, the speed is always kept c and this is completely independently from each own-speeds of the respective Emitters.


This was correct generally, as long as the Emitter < = c was. In other words: On this occasion, the speed-addition-theorem doesn't apply. The light can never move faster than with c. This is simply because of it, because the waves stretch to each new time and formation-place with c. This is almost so, as if the Emitter not at all moved. The wavelengths alone are changed by the own-speeds of the Emitters. Completely in the opposite to it, the light runs decreased advance from the view of the agitated Emitters about the own-speed. First hereby becomes the Doppler-effect at all clearly and if reaches the Emitter c, a light-wall refines like with the sound from reprimanded waves, which cannot become perforated with conventional methods.


The points P3, P2, P1 and P0 correspond to the temporal positions, from which new waves are emitted.
From these points, the waves spread themselves with v = c.
This happens with even speed of the Emitters continuously and generates the Doppler-effect consequently.

That the light always extends from the view of the Emitters in movement-direction itself with c on this occasion, is against a quality of taken transfer-medium from the agitated Emitter. Hereby only takes place with longer distances in movement-directionmust must be taken a compensation in form of the transformational-laws with calculations into account. For the same reason, the resistance becomes ever bigger with speeds against c. It is therefore no relativistic effect but a quite natural that we experience with each trip through our atmosphere as well. Also on this occasion an ever bigger nascent resistance must be compensated for by higher effort the faster we drive.
My calculations accordingly amounts the value for the dark matter and dark energy together too approximately 68 nm on per 100 million light-years. In other words: With one billion light-years, this yields covered Z = 1,156 on the yellow sodium-line. Z would correspond to with it = 10 of a distance of 8,65 billion light-years. In this case another amount hardly remains practical for the expansion of the universe and we could assume an almost static universe. Especially then, if now still we the interstellar matter into the calculations with brings in. Then, we have a static universe with circa 9 to 10 billions light-years expansion. This corresponds to however only the visibility of our present-day telescopes. Should itself even higher Z - securities later has namely determined, the universe becomes only somewhat more larger with it. It is more larger anyway, because we look into each direction into such distances. According to it, that must show us universe known at present a diameter of at least 26 billions light-years. To it it comes however that we must assume it to decide not us in the middle of the universe. So seen can decide the real size of the universe we in no way. In this context, I would like autumn 2003 at the horizon-problems described by me in the cosmos-tidings / S. 8 and from The infinity of the universe in summers 2002 / S. 9. reminds.
With it above described would be a direct reference emptied between the red-postponements, the distances and the escape-speeds largely. The own-speeds of the objects become quite normally with 100 - 1500 km /s involved is, 1500 km /s corresponds to Z = 0,005. with it contributes the own-speeds of the objects to the aggregate value only unimportantly however and has investigated itself on big distances only heavily. Now determining the exact distances becomes more difficult through it unequally. It moves closer everything a big piece namely and the visible universe is really no longer so tremendously. That result of it is however: What is near, is in reality farther and something distant appears, moves essentially in more detail. The energy is from the explosiveness of the universe withdrawn through it largely.
In this context, I would like on a very revealing, page 9 in expertquestion(answer in ASTRONOMY TODAY, 7/8 2007: It is represented that up to a red-postponement of Z = 1 the objects in the universe somewhat lesser against what that of even further distant Galaxies show an angle-expansion all the big in the relationship per further it distant appears, is. This effect was justified with the expansion of the space-time. As we now know however, it can also be described differently. And it remains a fact that the red-postponement-values don't go with the trigonometrical arbitrated values! Everything corresponds to in the full scope however the from me above displayed. Here, one must adjudicate quite plainly between different possibilities and not always the complicated solution is the right solution. It is therefore absolutely possible that the objects are not truly so far away as the red-postponement-values have it suspected at present and consequently the universe „somewhat lesser is “. And the expansion-speed of the universe is with likelihood bordering at security far more inferior than until now assumed.
Now another effect, which appears to amateur-astronomers for us especially interestingly. It is about the direct proof on the side that „Photons“ are only waves with defined energy-contents, not however particles. Would not be it so, particles would have no real continuance and simply dissolved.
The collective-fortune of lentils and concave mirrors is meant. Once from it foreseen, that particles can hardly through-go in straight way through glass or clear plastic, what is not possible even the light-generating tiny electrons, against the light-waves are focused by refraction or reflection. And however they lose energy on their way to the eyepiece in accordance with the more lesser nascent opening-relationship seemingly.
To this, one must introduce itself once: directional and packaged waves also become weaker with proportionally increasing distance to the square. With itself circular extending elementary-waves is comprehensible this, because distributes them itself with double distance on the quadruple surface. Why the intensity also decreases with packaged waves after the same legality however? It is a gigantic difference namely, whether I a telescope with an opening-relationship of 1: 5 or 1: 10 uses.
Let's take a packaged particle-ray for example, so the intensity is adequate for the number in the focus accordingly n - masses once their speed.
Quite differently with the waves! The solution is however as so often quite simply: The focal length grows with the more lesser nascent opening-relationship proportionally and with it the enlargement-factor. In other words: The packaged light falls with increasing focal length on a surface, which becomes more larger to the square. And already we have the same principle as with the elementary-waves again. This can be checked with the calculation of the focal enlargement:
As examples, we assume the middle sunbathe-diameter with 0,5° and once 1000mm focal distances and then the double focal length with 2000mm.

d = DS = illustration-diameters, at = object-angles, FS = lense-focal length

The formula is: DS = TAN AT X F,
D1 = 0,5° TAN X 1000MM = 8,7268677MM
D2 = 0,5° TAN X 2000MM = 17,453735MM

With double focal length, emerges precisely the double diameter, with which the surface grows in the square, therefore four times so big is.

©2007 author: Michael Köchling

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