Astrophysics

©2004 author: Michael Köchling
 



Are there "black holes"?

Already much was written about these objects hypothetical purely. And also I published in the club-magazine „cosmos-tidings“, just as in the homepage of the society for cosmos-tidings e.V. articles over it.
Meanwhile, I could widen my knowledge over these objects however. Consequently, I can offer new facts.
How such objects can originate, you find under the title „the terrible black holes! “under www.weltallkunde.de / different astrotopics. (only in German)
Therefore, I won't repeat this part here. I recommend you to read first this article since it represents an introduction into the topic somewhat complex however. The electromagnetic strengths mentioned in it are from particular importance, because they have the decisive influence in the end which objects remain remaining super-novas as rest-stars of red giants after one. To it, the initially-trick-impulses of the red giants however still come. Gigantic escape-power originate through them with the implosion of the star-cores and comparably strong electric - and magnetic fields. All these strengths influence the final result.
As I already represented in other articles, super-novas of red giants originate with that an imploding core-area and an exploding cover in each case. The repelled masses of the covers run with it between 80 - 95% of the respective mass of stars. What therefore originates as rest-object, becomes through the exit-mass and decides the initially-rotation-impulse.
If a rotation-impulse exists, so the core-area rotates after its implosion with enormous speed in the second - until milli-second-area. The escape-power emerging with it work contrary to the gravitational-strength and cause a strongly leveled off object, which can refine to a rotating ring. The result is a so named „Neutron-star“, it is accordingly my knowledge a proton - neutron - star, comparably with an alpha - particle (only somewhat bigger), or about „Magnetar “and „Pulsar “. Latter are likewise „Neutron-stars“, however with especially strong magnetic qualities.
Now we must still determine as I come to the statement that it itself in the end of stadium about a proton - neutron - star deals.
The cause is an independently of each other discovered effect of Mr. László Körtvélyessy and me. He named it the thermo-elements - effect, because the manufacture-procedure of his company is based for thermo-elements. I called it radiation-pressure - effect however. This effect is generated by the radiation-pressure in matter with different temperature-areas. Outside and woos become electrons it always collects itself in the less warm matter-area because the warmer area exerts stronger radiation-pressure on the electrons. For thermo-elements, this means that if the less warm end of a rod is grounded, a weak stream flows. The amperage grows with increasing temperatures at the warmer rod-end, from which the to be done temperatures can be derived.
In fully other way, I found this effect! Was known to me that the inside of the stars consists of a highly condensed plasma and that stars repel a particle-stream constantly. It therefore remained the question which effects the particle-wind has on the composition of stars long-term. I found out with it that the electrons much easier than the protons, neutrons and ions is emitted. This is because of the much more inferior mass of the electrons. An electron is for example 1836-sometimes easier than a proton or neutron. If the same electromagnetic waves are therefore met with so different masses of free particles, becomes so this differently strongly accelerates. Hereby, one emerges separated-ion of the freights long-term. The electrons are emitted in far bigger measurement, through which each starcore loads itself electrostatic positively continuously. Hereby the ionized atoms only remain behind in the starcores which consist of the protons and neutrons. For this reason, I hold the name „Neutron-star“ as rest one super-novas for unsuitable. Additionally the representation slips with it that it should be about a gigantic neutron. Actually, it rather corresponds to an alpha - particle, what of course also is not right, the condition however essentially better describes. In reality, the starcores consist almost completely to the end of ionized metal-ions, iron -, nickel - and other heavy metal-ions.
If a red giant has as exit-star as good as no initially-trick-impulse however, we are confronted with a completely other course. No considerable escapepower counteract with it the core-implosion and the gravitation can put in their entire strength to the press. Even the protons and neutrons are compressed so strongly with it that originates from the core-area short-term something like a quark-star. This has fatal effects! The rest-star also explodes and its entire mass contributes to a gigantic-novae. No rest-star remains behind and all scatters itself in the cosmos and stands further star-formations from now and yet to the disposal.
Now you will have the justifiable question as it occurs and now becomes interesting it right. In order to be able to understand the further course, you need additional information. These deliver the protons and neutrons of the rest-star to you. These subatomic particles are largely empty, exists from three quarks with different third-freights however in each case. The proton comprises two up - quarks and a down - quark. Vice-versa, the neutron consists of two down - quarks and an up - quark. The three masses of the quarks extend to the formation of a proton or neutron however on no account. This means that even further core-particle-pairs, which are also assumed by the scientists, must exist. Such particles could however not yet be proven.
The up - quarks has + 2/3 freights and the down - quarks - 1/3 freights. The proton has the freight 2 xes through it + 2/3 - 1/3 = +1 and the neutron 2 xes - 1/3 + 2/3 = 0. Approximately same numbers suit themselves with it in the emerging quark-mash up - and down - quarks opposite.
You remember: In the proton are 2 up - quarks and a down - quark. In the neutron, it is 2 down - quarks and 1 up - quark. This yields together exactly three pairs of up - and down - quarks, that can exchange their freights in the quark-mash.
You will already suspect it. It is the electrically loaded particles compressed now within the two Bariones, which to each other itself like with a matter - antimatter-reaction holds back. The exchange of the freights generates the necessary energies to the complete annihilation of the entire core-area. It is about a simplified representation of course, because nobody can know exact which runs in the individual with it. However, this is not at all so important. Only the result counts. And this covers:

" From imploding stars, no one can „black holes” originates! ”

It is clear to me that this is an outrageous claim, but please holds you! For completion of my calculations, I looked information over super-novas of the class 1a in my astronomy - lexicon. I found with it through coincidence a direct confirmation my charge done a scarce hour ago. It was about a research-result of the Hubble - Space - Telescope. Scientists had the super-nova-remains of the nearer sunbathe-surroundings observed with it and after rest-stars of these events sought. Additionally to the central-star of the cancer-fog, only 5 further objects were discovered in form of pulsars (neutron-stars) and this with over one hundred super-nova-rests. On the basis of the proximity of those objects, the telescope would have had to discover however absolutely even smallest rest-stars. Sources: ABC - lexicon astronomy, spectrum academic publishing house 1995, 8. edition, p.491,
My statement done above is substantiated adequately with it: There are no „black holes“ from imploding stars! However, the possibility still exists that in the centres of galaxies „black holes“ could exist, that in other way has originated. To this, I had written in former articles that possibly the galaxies from gigantic singularitis (black holes) from indoors out what is however still speculative at present could have originated, since there are to this still no direct hints.


The particle-model as solution for the not-existence of Black Holes!

©2012 Author: Michael Köchling
 

After I was addressed in regard to it many times, what now runs out in the protons and neutrons then exactly, I have decided on it to present my result. What has come with it out, can have itself seen, then the at present existing particle-model of the reality should correspond to, can so like follows is determined:
How described above before, 2 up - quarks are in the protons and a down - quark. Up - quarks possesses +2/3 - freights and down - quarks -1/3 - freights.

This yields 2 xes +2/3 = +4 /3 + - 1/3 = +3/3 = the freight working outside +1 .

With the neutron, the freight working outside turns against it into 0, because itself in it 2 downs - quarks and an up - quark decides.

Therefore 2 xes -1/3 = -2/3 + 2/3 = 0 .



With the neutron, it is therefore completely clear, that it cannot exist longer, if comprises the pressure one imploding rest-star more than 2,5 sunbathe-masses. All quarks in the neutrons exchange their freights internally through which no neutron can be existent longer and they fell into pure energy. This has to the consequence that not longer all heavy-ions existent and only protons existing can be. With other words:

„From the moment on gives it no heavy elements in the collapsing rest-stars more.“

However, the protons suffer a similar fate. A quark is in them in each case with minus 1/3 - freight, which also with one of the up - quarks responds. As a result, all protons disintegrate into Positronen, neutral Pionen, Neutrinos and exotic particles, with which gigantic energy-quantities become free again. It is completely clear with it that no rest-star can remain. Only the already previously blasted cover stretches after such a catastrophe and on this occasion something, which was determined with such events already many times, happens:

„The second inner explosion passes the explosion of the cover blasted before!“

In the astrophysics, much is possible, however, it should always be compatible with the natural conditions.

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