Astrophysik

©2009 author: Michael Köchling
 



Alternatives to the dark energy

In an article of astronomy today, in edition 6 / 2006 went it about the Cosmological Constant? It was shown that the entire barionic mass amounts in the universe to only approximately 5%, from what the visible matter exactly a half % amounts. Further 30% should slip on the dark matter. Remain the rest of 65% for the dark energy consequently.

Now, nobody has been able to explain until now, what are these two forms of dark matter and dark energy. On the basis of the effects alone in the universe, one knows that they had to would exist. Except natural that was interpreted somewhat incorrectly. It therefore passes a certain insecurity, but it is searched busily in order to be able to present something usable. To this, different thought-models should help to a solution. There are some thought-bases, which view from all directions however in no way, conclusive results delivers.

Albert Einstein always gets an expanding, or a contracting universe with his calculations, why he introduced the Cosmological Constant "Lambda". It should cause a flat static universe. This constant caused one of the gravity contrary to working strength. In this context, it had become assumed that the middle density of the dark energy had to would decrease in an expanding universe. For this reason, a big aimed surveillance of super-novas of the class 1A was put down in walk. These super-novas always participate like standard-candles, brightness resemble, because they always explode, if they through snatching matter of a bloated neighbour-star, the Chandra Sekhar - border of 1,4 sunbathe-masses has reached. The results showed no significant differences in the expected red-postponement and this however although the distances of the super-novas varied between 2 and 8 billions light-years. With other words: No influences emerged it through the dark energy and the density of this energy therefore had to withstands the expansion of the universe constant remains. To this now my commentaries:
It is completely right that the white dwarfs to one become super-novas, as soon as they the Chandra Sekhar - border has reached. It is not right however that they always find the same brightness. This was already covered in another study. The different initially-masses of the white dwarfs are the reason for it. It makes a big difference whether such a dwarf possesses a half sunbathe-mass or a sunbathe-mass initially. Moreover, there are of course still others standards of quantity. A fact is it however that these stars must collect differently much mass until they turn into the super-novas. And exactly the differently collected quantities of hydrogen, helium and other easy elements are responsible for the brightness-developments then, because the white dwarfs consist almost exclusively of irons. It is known moreover that such stars can turn into the super-novas many times if they itself tears renews matter of the neighbour-star after the first event. However now to the density of the dark energy:
With the expansion of the cosmos, the middle density would admittedly decrease, but the reason-quantity would remain gotten and distributes itself evenly. It follows that it decreases through the expansion. Consequently the logic would appear differences. If this energy is largely tied at the barionic matter and at the dark matter however, so this won't be the case. And actually a theory points exactly into this direction. It is about the Scalar-Tensor-Vector-Gravity (STVG). Your according to originates in the vacuum close to mass-rich objects a big number of gravity - particles, which are responsible for the gravitational-effect. For this reason shall close to the mass-reaches objects a strong G - strength works. Against farther from the objects, should be formed few Gravitonens and consequently everything with the Newton`s handicaps in unison stands.

To this, I can only say that if the particles refine only near masses, we after a new transfer-medium for the „electromagnetic waves“ had to seek. If they are evenly distributed against it to find, so we don't need this. They could assume, there is a radial compression effects to the Gravitonens through the attraction of the objects. Is not it so however. Only their speed to the object increases itself and because there it itself about mass deals, we can apply the formula of the kinetic energy, Ekin = 0,5 mv2s. Why the gravitational-strength ascends in the square to the distance in direction of the objects is to be explained. Since this is the probably most important formula of the nature, I had them, and not E = mv2, on the title page of my book represented. To the explanation of this process, you please introduce themself a funnel filled with water. The current - speed of the molecules accepts with the leakage of the water after the same legality to the outflow. It is given with it that itself the strength, just like we it knows, reinforces.
Following effects result from it:

1.: The middle density of the Gravitonens must decrease, because they are used in the mass-objects, in that partly they pressure and with it heat generates, but simultaneously long-term the masses increases and the matter essentially exists taken from condensed Gravitonens. Hereby the separate drift of the continents could be derived for example what some researchers have already assumed. It was presupposed that the earth swells slowly, through what the earth at the edges of the continental-plates rends and fills itself the so originated columns with Magma from the inside. This way, the continents drift slowly however secures apart.



2.: That to pressure and with it in heat changed share is emitted against it in form of waves, with which climbing streams play a big role in the inside of the masses. The heat is transported by them at the surfaces, against which the matter itself has an insulating effect and impedes the depositing of heat consequently.

3.: On the basis of the slow, from us in our short life not noticeable decrease of the middle density of the Gravitonens over billions years away, the cosmos must expand. Because with a mass of 2 xes 10120 kg is still existing the mass of the half after the consumption of 1 xes 10120 kg even. Consequently it has only low effects on the density of Gravitonens especially since it lasted billions years.

Result: The circle would actually be closed with it and it turns out a conclusive result, because we can assume it that with an expansion of the universe and with simultaneous increase of the masses, also our standards grow up. Consequently, we can hardly notice a change. And still comes to it, that seemingly few Gravitonen must be happened on the many billion light-years trip of the light, however there the distances increased, it is like earlier comparably many. Also hereby, no changes of the red-postponements can certainly be proven.

Now, we have not to do it in the nature with ideal bodies, but as we can recognize by the example of the earth, she is flattened firstly, thereupon the mass-distributions are very irregular in her. Hereby originates so named gravity - anomalies. And to it the appearing escape force is still caused at the equator by her own-rotation. But this is not everything still ago! Sun, moon and the planets influence the current-speeds of the radial working Gravitonens additionally. Small differing streams of Gravitonens originate constantly through it. The reason is even that we always it with a many-body - problem to do have, each measurements of the gravitational-strength must deliver different results therefore.
If the theoreticians of the STVG of it therefore go out, so that an unequal distribution of the Gravitonens is available here, cannot be agreed to it, because this is with the appearing strengths in no good agreement. Unfortunately, the Perihel - rotation of the Mercury becomes named in this context again as a relativistic effect and again without describing however. After classic physics, this effect can be proclaimed only something 92,5% with what the tides-strengths of the other planets are declared as explanations. Further effects are however always neglected. There, the radiation-pressure of the sunbathe-wind is once, just as the solar magnet-field and the magnet-fields of the planets. This common is certainly responsible for the remaining value. Now it should become clarify as this Perihel - rotation occurs at all:

The earth induces itself with a middle speed of 29,8 km/ses about the sun, with which she moves in their stream of Gravitonens. From this, an aberration-angle of the inpouring particles, which results from true current and own-speed, emerges for the earth. Both together generates a parallelism of force. It is comparable with the apparent wind with the sailing. Also this originates from the true wind and the airstream. And arrive another current of the water then, we speak of a leeway. Nobody come to this on the idea to explain it with a relativistic calculation, is to be seen everything relatively in our universe, because there are none true Potential - pots, in which ideal prerequisites are valid. Everything is in movement relatively to each other and is subject to multiple influences.



From the somewhat diagonally streaming in strength, an inferior rotation-impulse results and if one wants so, also one somewhat braking strength. Happens with the sunbathe-wind likewise, because also it works like from me described with an aberration-angle and generated a rotation-impulse as well and simultaneously a heavy strength, which counteracts the gravity. It is crucially with it which effect prevails ultimately. With 1,36 kW/m2s with vertical impact, the sun-no-radiation is immensely on the earth and at Mercury and Venus even about a multiple higher. However, I must point out it at this position that the sunbathe-wind as well as from waves - and particle-radiation, which very different speeds show, exists. According to it, the aberration-angle amounts to the waves only 20,5 “, against it with the particles what essentially bigger is canceled ( 1,8 ` until 6 ` ), since these with 300 - 1000 km/ses much slow are and their speeds vary strongly.
The Gravitonens - current of the sun becomes additional through the other planets with oppositions once reinforces or softens. It depends with it on it whether the opposition takes place with an inner planet or with another outside situated.
From this, the constantly changing influences emerge and at all planets until to the Saturn, a such influence could be proven. One can assume however that all planets are exposed the same influences. Only, the strengths appearing with it are just differently big and works the differently big masses, diameters and distances of the planets once more strongly accordingly or weaker. To take this of everything into account puts therefore big requests at our scientists and their computers. But it relatively simply goes, in that one calculates it with the relativity.
To this, Albert Einstein said once:

„Since the mathematicians have attacked over the relativity,
I don´t understand it no longer myself! “



zurück zur Hauptseite