Astronomy and physics

©2004 author: Michael Köchling

Doubt the 2. main proposition of the thermodynamics!

The thermodynamics or heating are just a section of the physics. They are the back of physical systems with a to - or from transfer of heat energy and examines temperature alterations. As basis of the thermodynamics, listed below are the main clauses of heating:

1. main clause (energy conservation sentence): heat is a special type of energy; it can be changed into other energy forms and can be inverted. The sum of all energy types (mechanical, thermal, electric, magnetic and chemical energy) remains constant in a completed system.

2. main proposition (entropy sentence): the entropy of a completed system can change only through exchange with the surroundings, or it can multiply only by itself. The directional character of all heat processes is simultaneous expressed with it. Heat cannot become property by itself moving from a colder body to a be property of a warmer body.

3. main proposition (nernstsches heat theorem): the entropy of a solid or liquid body has the value zero at absolute zero.

Never, could I identify myself with the statement of the 2. main proposition of the thermodynamics. My personal feeling resisted against it. Meanwhile I could determine how, many fellow have the same feeling as well. Have you ever taken the effort yourself to check the statement? Certainly not, because it comes from no more than from Ludwig Boltzmann (Vienna 1844 - 1906). in each lexicon and even in the H.R. Christians quite clearly get along it: An energy transfer is possible only from one warmer to a colder body! This seems to be logical right, because a warmer body beams more strongly than a colder body.
Now we will do a small experiment: If we take an idealized area without any radiation and completely free, the bodies will adapt a temperature, which lies exactly between the two exit temperatures of both bodies. This of course only then, if both bodies possess the same mass. The colder body picks up the quantity energy, which was handed over from the warmer body, at least on this occasion, it was always represented to us in the physics instruction. This also was quite plausible, the quantum mechanics with its wave functions exists there. Before however, we continue, another important situation is to be clarified: What is warmth and what is colder heat? At the latest now, we have a problem, because there is not any cold! The feeling of cold is completely subjective and doesn't exist at all in the quanta and wave mechanics!
We determine:

"waves - and quantum-mechanically are only there in different warm matter in the universe!"

Per definition, the term is incorrectly "cold" because there are only differently warm conditions of the matter in the universe which certain wavelengths correspond. Each matter, that doesn't have the absolute zero of -273,15°C, is warm. It is completely inessential which temperature it has.
We now in the middle of the quantum mechanics. However, we still must occupy ourselves with the energy transfer possibilities. How is energy broadly transferred? Before, I mentioned spare the waves. They are not only radiation but simultaneously ( investigated by us ) the main energy carriers. There is still another type of transfer. These are among each other the direct pushes of particles, however they come only subordinate in consideration since they comparatively rarely take place in nature. Main carriers are the waves. Almost, the entire energy transfer in the universe is based on wave functions, where electric - and magnetic fields have a very big share of it!
With this statement, we now arrived at the area of the atoms and electrons. In principle, they are responsible for the formation of waves with their vibrations. In this context, I must point out that the Nils Bohr`sche doesn't correspond in reality to nuclear model with his electrons circling about the atomic nucleus. Only, the model fits solely in the chemistry. Meanwhile, however, one assumes that the electrons move in likelihood areas, the so named Orbitalen. Only so, are the spatial alignment of atoms and molecules explicable. This applies to the crystalline construction of the matter. The physicist John Gribbin said to this:
"Not only that Bohr`s atom with its electrons - tracks gives a wrong picture, but all pictures are wrong, there is no physical analogy, that might makes it understandable, what happens in the atoms."( It is quantum physics and reality 1991, page 106 ).
The fact is that electrons wibbeln in its Orbitalen and therefore generate waves. Vice-versa, they can absorb waves with resonance.
We can assume:
All electrons in the universe wibbeln and generates waves! It is all electrons because each matter is more warmth than the absolute zero in the universe. Because of the reason of this statement, we know that the entire matter beams in the universe and hands over or gives out energy . On this occasion warmer matter beams more strongly than less warm matter. However, a basic quality of waves is being penetrated by themselves mutually unhindered, for a very long time no interference appears.
Therefore, the whole universe of waves of different frequencies and strengths is filled. Let's now transfer this on the 2. main proposition of the thermodynamics, so we can assume that the different radiations of the different matter accumulations influence the temperatures of the masses mutually. They influence mutually because waves of different wavelengths can penetrate easily. On the basis of these facts, we know that each matter is influenced by the radiation of other matter. It doesn't play any role on that occasion whether this is more warmly or less warmly than it itself.

"From wave-mechanical - and quantum-mechanical view, therefore is the 2. main proposition of the thermodynamics in its statement is not justifiable!"

©2004 author: Michael Köchling

In the astrophysics, much is possible, however, it should always be compatible with the natural conditions.

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