Astrophysik

©2011 Author: Michael Köchling
 



The search after the gravitational-waves

It appears certainly very strange that there should be gravitational-waves according to Albert Einstein and his relativity-theory, these however since beginning of the 20 century in vain is sought. What is however still far more remarkable: the gravity should influence the waves of the light. There, the question poses itself: What is gravity and on which manner does it influence „electromagnetic waves “ to which also the waves of the light belong?
Ever bigger efforts are undertaken to prove about such waves. In near future, even three satellites shall for it, equipped with lasers, on the orbit of the earth about the sun around in position becomes. Lowest changes should be the wavelengths and their number with it between the satellite measurably. Seems to these waves on the first gaze to attach something mysterious, it could not be however that something essential was overlooked and how the solution can so often be quite simple?
In order to procure you an overview, I am therefore with you to the wave-mechanics far back, because it should be about waves. Moreover we must fix previously which requests are necessary about such waves, if existing to be able to prove.
Let's start therefore and look like can be generated waves. You all knows the stone warped into the quiet water. It causes concentric waves. One calls this wave-form elementary-waves. They stretches about the impact around. It is the impulse of the dunking stone, which causes the waves to the movement-direction crosswise, with it.



Picture-proof: Sources no longer existing!


For this reason, this type of waves was called cross-waves. It is different with the sound. On this occasion membranes or other objects swing, why we name them longitudinal-waves. They causes into the changing, oscillating movement-direktions shock waves in the respective medium. These „electromagnetic waves“ are generated to the movement-direction of electrically loaded particles or magnetic particles again crosswise. A moved electric field is always accompanied with it from a magnetic field, and inverted a moved magnetic field of an electric field, Albert Einstein / Leopold Infeld, the revolution of the physics, page 145.
We now know which wave-types are available to us. There, the waves are on liquids once, then the soundwaves and ultimately the so-called „electromagnetic waves“ that comprises a gigantic spectrum of different wavelengths.
Let's start therefore and test as we can influence waves. As result, we find that they reflect themselves, directs, breaks, bends and has divided even easily. Thereupon we determine that one can polarize the cross-waves what means that they swing only in one direction. This is the biggest difference opposite the longitudinal-waves, like the sound. Moreover, this only stretches in form of wave-fronts. Therefore, they are rather oscillating shock waves, that stretch through the medium air. Quite differently waves stretch on liquids. They are polarized vertically and the molecules of the water are moved with it only up and down, but hardly changes their position in movement-direction of the waves however. Like is it with that „electromagnetic waves “to which also the waves of the light belong. These waves are also polarized as cross-waves, occur with it in the nature in almost all polarization-angles however and remain singles-waves until on an exception. Let's send them through a very narrow split, or a small hole, is bent them however and also originate behind the split itself concentrically extending elementary-waves. For this reason, it came to unite it very confusing statements if they were sent by two neighboring columns. Interference-pictures originated.



Picture-proof: selfmade
Not standard-just representation of interference at the duplicate-split by means of light-waves.


One could send with electrons, therefore electrically loaded particles, through even-such columns namely, identical interference-pictures generate, ( to this I recommend you means report „What really is light? “in the Internet under www.astrophysik-mkoechling.de ). Since it itself about another chapter of that „electromagnetic waves “deals, I don't accept it at this position near.
If we now come to the spread-speeds however, so we determine: Each wave-type has their own specific spread-speed, which is marked in the physics with c. C is - specifically from the respective spread-medium dependent. With the waves of the light, this is especially plainly clarified. If we send light-waves through water, glass or plastic namely, so c decreases - specifically in accordance with the refractive index of the respective material. We know this effect also with the sound. If we lead sound through wood, metal or air, so the sound has another specific speed in each material. And independently from frequency and wavelengths c remains - specifically always same. With the light-waves, it is 300.000 km /s in the vacuum of the cosmos, in the water 225.000 km /s and in glass or plastic between 185.000 - 240.000 km /s according to refractive index.



Picture-proof: selfmade
Wave-fronts from the left becomes behind the split to elementary-waves.


If you should now judge the processes described above however, so they will come to the result that all influences of waves are only purely mechanically possible. Let's try the waves with electric or magnetic fields to influence namely - so we experience a disappointment. Yes itself the so-called „electromagnetic waves“ doesn't have influenced itself with it, if they are first then on the way! There, the question must be allowed however: Is this at all „electromagnetic waves “, since we can change them however only purely mechanically? It not even exists a contrast to other waves, because also these through electric - and magnetic particles is generated. We need ourselves for it only on the level of the molecules and atoms looks around, because all these particles has as well as electric -, like also magnetic qualities and is moved them, so they relay their impulses at the surrounding medium. We can therefore answer ourselves this question itself. They are purely mechanically generated waves and their name completely wrong expectations admits. This is also the reason why I had put them in quotation-lines from the beginning.
Now, you will certainly quote that itself electric - and magnetic fields in same manner extend and still to it with same specific speed. A certain relationship cannot therefore be disputed, because obviously both types use the same medium for their spread. If we look at the field-processes however, so we notice that it through moved electric - or magnetic fields is generated. Therefore again through purely mechanical effects. But it is not in these cases about cross-waves but about longitudinal-waves, because they appear in the form of wave-fronts. Certainly you now think as counterevidence of permanent-magnets, however I must disappoint you. The metal-crystals in it, also as cells of Weiß marks, is mainly immediately organized, but the movements of that in it itself moving electric freight-bearers, like electrons and protons, generates the magnetic fields of these magnets. You therefore see that the mechanics is also prevalent on this occasion. Let's examine the electric - and magnetic fields however, so we recognize that the respective complementary-field originates in the right angle to it. This can be clarified easily with the three-finger-stand.



Picture-proof: selfmade
The three-finger-rule


Crosswise to the movement-direction of the freight-bearer originates in the right angle to each other as well as a magnetic also like an electric field. It originates through it with alternating current a coordinate-cross with changing directions, why admittedly crosswise these fields to the movement-direction, but nevertheless as standing longitudinal-waves is generated.
Let's hold on therefore: The wave-types of the light and just all „electromagnetic waves “ are mechanical nature purely and is polarized directional-independently emitted in the normal case as cross-waves. We now know that it is about mechanical waves without exception, even if they through electric - or magnetic particles are generated.
The question poses itself with it of course: „In which medium stretches them, because with mechanical waves, a medium is necessarily necessary to the spread.“ Already many scientists have brawled themselves the hair over it, because until now they could for them such „electromagnetic waves“ doesn't prove. And admitted: It is a strange quality that these waves are emitted as cross-waves. But this is so well! Because would be itself it concentrically extending longitudinal-waves, so we could perceive only silhouette-ful pictures of our surroundings and that existing objects there. Moreover, we would have instead of a retina in the eye, a membrane like in the ear. That this right is, one recognizes by split - and duplicate-split-attempts. Interference-pictures can admittedly be generated with it, no longer however sharp pictures of the respective producer. As you could see, it is inalienable that it is so. Only therefore, we can perceive our surroundings with our eyes so very well. Occurring in accordance with their tiny wavelengths with high frequency and in incredibly big number, they are responsible for best picture-quality in our eyes.
And because one had to assume that really it itself about individual wave-steels or deals even about wave-sections, the scientists assumed that it had to would be photons what would mean however that they would have to do it with particles. This is a completely improper assumption, because it was proven many times. They are waves in past and they will be waves in futur. It is a gigantic advantage with it that all these waves can go through themselves unhindered without also influencing themselves with it only in the least. They are therefore waves because particles cannot penetrate themselves simply mutually. And quite obviously they don't unite with it to common wave-fronts after the principle of Huygens.
There is however like above mentions an exception. Let's change the cross-waves, in that we send them through narrow columns, so they can influence themselves mutually and even mutually can wipe out. But we have now created a form of longitudinal-waves through this measure and longitudinal-waves can be influenced through interference.



Picture-proof: selfmade
On this occasion, the change of cross-waves finds, left, to longitudinal-waves, right, instead of!


A wave can be reinforced with it, if a wave-mountain on a wave-mountain, or inverted a wave-valley on a wave-valley meets. It is different if a wave-mountain meets at a wave-valley. On this occasion, both waves wipe themselves out mutually. Even these processes are mechanical nature purely and we now and then experience it on the oceans where true monster-waves originate through interference. Earlier they had always considered this yarn, however meanwhile they could determine wave-heights until 30m amounts by means of satellites that becomes dangerous even the biggest ships and they are much more frequently than one ever had suspected.
Summary: I hope, I could show you, that are emitted these waves on the basis of their alignment and production as individual waves, and that it is about purely mechanical waves, with which all of oscillating, loaded particles are emitted.
However this only on the side. It is much more important now to fix, whether gravitational-waves as longitudinal - or cross-waves occur! Or maybe even in both forms? We had to would know at this position in what these waves stretch and the gravity is what.
You all knows the history with Newton`s of the tree falling apple, which inspired him and he described the gravitational-strength as a result for the first time. We know however only the effect with it and as we can calculate this strength, not however the true nature of this process.
There are different thought-models. There, the earth was assumed attracts us with your gravitational-strength. For this reason, we will come back to the ground of the facts again quickly. Quite immediately as highly we us over it has raised. Another theory means, we are pressed by the gravitational-strength on the earth and the earth with their mass is the trigger of this strength coming from outside.
Let's assume once, this strength is generated by so-called Gravitonens, ( founder of this theory is Hideki Yukawa 1935 ), which are put on from the cosmos of the mass of the earth. Then we are in this current and this presses us at the earth because also we consist of mass and must the Gravitonens through us through. In accordance with our respective masses, we therefore offer a resistance and this is it, that presses us at the earth. How the Gravitonens do this is insignificant, then loudly Albert Einstein is equivalent mass and energy. If the gravitational-waves were longitudinal-waves like with the sound however, must this strength arrive in wave-fronts to us. Hereby, it would come in accordance with the wavelengths and respective strengths to extremely unpleasant oscillations. These could shake us strongly. We however never notice such effects why we can exclude this wave-form with big security. It had to would be cross-waves for this reason! A similar effect would appear with very big wavelengths and enormous strengths however and we would shake left and right. So we would have arrived at the start again because we can determine no such effect. Does this mean approximately that we can fully exclude such waves?
Also this cannot be right, because we sense the strength of the gravity continuously and we can assume that it is about an equally streaming strength. That we sense nothing from all it, must have a reason, because even in the cosmos exploding stars causes no one such effect on our earth. This can only mean that those waves are very weak and small just as high frequencies possess! Only so it is explicable that they point no shake - effects to us. Moreover we know that the gravity is the weakest all strengths in the universe. Only with accordingly big masses like planets or stars, it can attain gigantic strengths. Already therefore, gravitational-waves must be small and weak.
What reaches us from exploding stars, is always only the light, Neutrinos increases, just as hard x-rays - and gamma-radiation. These always reach us at the same time because nothing can be faster than the light in this area. For this reason, we always experience after centuries only, millennia or after millions of years only, if a star has changed into a super-nova. We still see the light of the stars although they exist no longer for a long time. This is simply because of the big distances, for which the light needs so incredibly long, until it reaches us.
Already 1996, I wrote a letter to a professor of the university Bonn, in which I represented, that the gravitational-waves cannot be tied at a certain wavelength and that it gravitational-waves in the form, as one imagines them until now, cannot occur. But let's come back to the opinion of the Hideki Yukawa. He assumed that the cosmos is filled with Gravitonens. Therefore with tiny particles, that are even much smaller than the Neutrinos with biggest security, because even so small particles like electrons and neutrinos can move without problems in the ocean of the Gravitonens. On the other hand, such particles cause waves like electrons and protons by their fast oscillating movements in this medium. What is however even much more important: This medium always streams towards on all matter-accumulations in the cosmos why Albert Einstein assumed that the gravity deflects the waves of the light negligibly. This happens obviously if a ray of light passes at a big planet or a star in big proximity for example. This could be confirmed with a total sunbathe-darkness. But we know this effect also with other objects in the cosmos. If light of a far distant Galaxie goes through another Galaxie in the foreground through, an Einstein-ring sometimes originates, an Einstein-cross or even many sickle - shaped narrow illustrations that far in the background standing Galaxie.



Picture-proof: with friendly permission ©ESA / NASA, made by Hubble-Space-Telescope
The Galaxy - Cluster Abell 1689 with gravitational lens


Let's consider the operation of this Gravitonens now, so we can even assume that they the so long sought medium to the spread of that „electromagnetic waves“ is, because if the gravity can deflect the waves of the light, a concrete interaction exists between them. Albert Einstein has given us a direct hint with it. And we now know that such waves of the Gravitonens - streams are deflected why we require no area-time-curvatures more to be able to explain about such processes. Moreover, there are still some other hints, that that medium exists. There is the appearing resistance over 10% of the speed of light in the vacuum of the cosmos. This climbs according to the same law as the value of air - hardiness, Cw - value named, in our atmosphere. Thereupon the Tscherenkow - radiation with speed - effects faster then light in dense media like water or compressed gases. The radiation originates for example if particles are shot like electrons or protons with bigger speed by a medium as his refractive index the speed of light restricts. With water, this is approximately 220.000 km /s.
Quite similarly the Synchrotron - radiation appearing in accelerators, which always appears, if particles are directed close to the speed of light originates into a curve. The waves run however straight ahead further, because they not like the electrically loaded particles through electric - or magnetic fields can be deflected.
It would be just as inexplicable, the polarization of that „electromagnetic waves“, to get up without such a medium in the cosmos over many light-years. And then is still there the final speed of the light, that is a specific speed like all other wave-speeds as well. It had to would be infinitely big without a medium. But the Evaneszents - modus are the probably most important proof with their speed - effects faster then light, represented from Professor Günter Nimtz, university to Cologne, physics in our time / 28. Jahrg. 1997 / Nr. 5 ). These can appear only under quite certain prerequisites, that you can also look up under my Internet - adress named above. The topic is:

„How can Superluminal Velocity be created?“


Here you see how in many different ways the proof exist even if we can prove such a medium through it only indirectly. The Gravitonens are simply much too small, as that we would have a network, with which we could catch them. Now, it is such a matter with names. Since one itself from the well known „ethers“ already a long time ago had given a farewell, one names it dark energy and dark matter today because one knows that the vacuum of the cosmos is just not absolutely empty. The density of the dark energy, just as the density of the dark matter becomes with in each case once 10 -26 kg / m3 assumed. This is right with my calculations to the density of Gravitonens in approximately in agreement and for example 100-sometimes amounts to less than the mass of a proton per m3.
What are that then however „electromagnetic waves “? We have seen, that the waves of the light are purely mechanically generated cross-waves and they stretch in the ocean of the Gravitonens, with which they are deflected negligibly by currents in it.

„With it has we to assume the chance that the so-called „electromagnetic waves“
in reality the so long sought gravitational-waves are!“




Going back to the main-side