Astrophysic

©2009 author: Michael Köchling
 



To the year of the astronomy of the year 2009

In this particular year, I would like to represent you something, which I have tried in many seminar papers, the fellow man sewer-spends. Unfortunately, I don't have the possibility at this position to support this with corresponding pictures.
Nevertheless, I will try to give the most important information to you. The current, just as has the space travel the decade lying back us a fullness at information, as well as over the planets of the solar system, as delivered also their satellites. The conditions could with it in their, if existing atmospheres, and on their surfaces is tested.

The results to this looks following:

Beginning with the sunbathe-next planet Mercury determines we. He is practically atmosphere-free, approximately 8 atoms per cm3 directly over his surface, and prevails on his surface temperatures from - 180°C to 430°C. The cold of the cosmos is therefore on the sunbathe-turned away side and during the daytime a temperature with which lead (327,4°C), tin (232°C) and zinc (419,4°C) are liquid. It already comes the colours of glow, that begin with approximately 550°C (dark brown), with it very near.

The next planet, the Venus, hardly takes second place to the Mercury with her extreme conditions. Her atmospheric pressure at the surface amounts to 90 devoid of. This corresponds to a pressure in 900 m water-gravities.
As well like on Mercury is incredibly high the temperatures to be found there with over 400°C. Also here is liquid lead and tin. Thereupon these temperatures are globally existing and there are no distinctive seasons. The composition of the atmosphere is still aggravating. Its consists to 96% from CO2 and to 3,5% of nitrogen (N). Moreover contains it sulphuric acid in steam-form and small droplets. With these basic conditions, she is really no agreeable residence.

Since the facts of the earth and the moon are known to you, we come directly to the Mars. He is the most similar the earth of all planets, however he has some serious disadvantages because of his much more inferior size and mass. These should be described here. He is further removed from the sun as the earth, through which it is much colder on him. Thereupon, he has because of his only 1/10 conducting masses a very thin atmosphere. This consists like with the Venus to 95% of CO2 comparably. The pressure on mixed ground level lies the earth's atmosphere with only 0,6% however. This pressure becomes with 5 - 10 Pas declared. However, it can cause seasonally, to big fluctuations comes. Namely then, if winters and sunbathe-distance coincide. Then, the temperatures sink at the Poland until on - 140°C. On the earth, CO2 fall out at - 76°C. With the low atmospheric pressure on the Mars however only with approximately -120°C. So that the atmospheric pressure sinks about almost 50% however, with what there are on this occasion considerable fluctuations, especially since the sinking pressure leads to a balance someday, then no further CO2 is cancelled.
Exactly the opposite happens, if applies summer and sunbathe-proximity. Now the dejected CO2 sublimates and rages around the planet, through which it comes to globally working vehement dust-storms. These sometimes envelop the entire planet for weeks or even month, so that from the earth with telescopes no details of the surface can be observed. Let's come to that there to finding temperatures now. In the method, they run at the equator at the night about -70°C to -80°C, against on the day in the summer it can up to 15°C ascend. This is because of the low Albedo with values from 0,15 to 0,20. With it comes comparably much sunbathe-energy to the surface like on the earth. However, the heat is handed over much more strongly in the nights because of the low atmosphere and the lacking steam again. This way, the ground can be thawed only little. Permafrost prevails however permanently. Vegetation and lives like we it knows, is therefore impossible.
The Mars has two small satellites. These are probably to be marked sooner than planetoids. They are atmosphere-loosely and similarly obtained like the moon.
Further into the cosmos out is the belt of planetoids. Also there is to be found everything only objects without atmosphere and with extreme low-temperatures.
The next planet is Jupiter. He is a giant planet of gas, with which we neither see the surface and not it reach ever. Remains consequently his satellites alone as attainable objects. The four big Galilei-Moons are only interesting here. Three of those are complete wrapped from ice, but also they are atmosphere-free. These are Europe, Ganymed and Kallisto. One suspects big oceans under their faces of ice in which finding possibly low life is. In so big sunbathe-distance, it is however beautifully cold at their surfaces with approximately -120°C to -195°C.
Remain Io, the most inner satellite still, which is not completely covered from ice and shows a distinctive, explosive volcanism. His surface is altered constantly.
Also he is without considerable atmosphere because the extremely strong magnet-field of the Jupiter ionizes the escaping gases and away-tears. At all, I must mention here again that this magnet-field with its inductive effect, extremely damaging for each life is.
They could compare it with the effect of a microwave-oven. Since Io is only little bigger than our moon, and its radioactive materials long ago spent should be, can become presuming, that that will generate ruling volcanism through the effect of the Jupiter-magnet-field there. This magnet-field rages with approximately 5,1 km /s through Io through. Io`s surface-temperatures lie with -70°c to -143°C. However, higher temperatures can occur locally near active volcanos. All other satellites of the Jupiter are insignificantly as life-bases and the planetoids very similar. They are atmosphere-free with temperatures about -150°C to -195°C.
Let's go to the next planet therefore further.
Saturn still a giant of gas like Jupiter, his solid surface we can neither see, nore reaches.
Those here to finding conditions are quite similar. Also here, are it the satellites, at which we want to look near. The biggest of it are also icy worlds and only the satellite Enceladus a so-called Kryo-volcanism shows. Water or ice is pressed with it by columns in the face of ice from the depth at the surface. This way, his surface-structure changes slowly. Tectonic could not be determined directly against it with the Saturn-satellites. On this satellites, it is even somewhat colder. Here, we are met with temperatures from -128°C to -240°C. A glorious exception against it, is the satellite Titan. He has even a denser atmosphere as the earth. The pressure at his surface amounts to approximately 1,5 devoid of. But it is cold also there with approximately -180°C and his atmosphere exists to 98,4% from nitrogen and to 1,6% from methane and argon.
Is still there the further the two gas-giants Uranus and Neptune. It applies to them likewise that we cannot enter them. Only their satellites remain therefore also here as possible goals. But it looks quite similarly on them like with the aforementioned of Jupiter and Saturn. They are all very frigid and atmosphere-loose worlds that is partly covered from some ice, or the planetoids similar is. The only difference consists of it, that it removes here from the sun even further, is only somewhat colder.
Remain Pluto the old or new dwarf-planet now still. Despite his smallness, three satellites could be determined with him after all so far. They are Charon, Nix and Hydra. On Pluto, a very low atmosphere, that seems to appear at least at times, was actually determined if he is on his very elliptical track in sunbathe-proximity. The atmosphere consists mainly of nitrogen, which turns with -210°C into ice. And there is methane, which even already with - 182°C solid becomes. However, this process takes place because of the low atmospheric pressure with somewhat lower temperatures, with which like like with the CO2, itself someday a balance puts in, which prevents another failure.
While Pluto seems to form a duplicate-system with Charon, against Nix and Hydra can probably be regarded as caught planetoids. However only when one has explored their compositions, a regulation can take place to this.
After you now know all these facts, a judgment of the named objects certainly falls you easily. We can determine therefore following:

All named objects are very interesting, however there are in our solar system, just as it us known universe, only one single object on it it livable is!
Think of it therefore always:
„We have only this one planet!“


©2009 author: Michael Köchling


In the astrophysics, much is possible, however, it should always be compatible with the natural conditions.

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